Fractional Distillation: The Heart of Petroleum Refining

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Explore the intricate process of fractional distillation of petroleum, uncovering how crude oil transforms into valuable energy resources.

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Embark on an enlightening journey through the core of the petroleum industry with our engaging PDF slide file, “Fractional Distillation: The Heart of Petroleum Refining.” Tailored for high school students and educators, this resource demystifies the critical process that transforms crude oil into various usable products.

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Meticulously Developed by Leading Specialists

Our expert team, comprising chemical engineers and industry specialists, has crafted each slide to vividly illustrate the fractional distillation process. We begin with the basics—what crude oil is, where it comes from, and why it needs refining. From there, we dive into the mechanics of how fractional distillation separates this complex mixture into its components.

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Students pursuing independent studies will find this slide file to be an invaluable resource. It features interactive elements that allow learners to visually follow the flow of crude oil through a fractionating column. Diagrams and animations clarify how temperature gradients within the column facilitate the separation of hydrocarbons into products like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel. Quizzes embedded throughout the presentation reinforce key concepts and ensure that learners grasp the details of each step.

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Educators will discover that this slide file greatly enhances teaching effectiveness. It provides a structured way to introduce complex chemical engineering principles in an accessible manner. Use these slides to spark discussions about energy resources, the chemistry behind distillation, and the environmental impact of oil refining. The detailed content supports curriculum standards in science and technology, making it easier to integrate into classroom lessons.

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Designed to Enhance Learning Experiences and Foster Academic Excellence in High School Education

“Fractional Distillation: The Heart of Petroleum Refining” is designed to captivate students’ interest and boost interaction in the classroom. The content promotes inquiry-based learning by encouraging students to consider how the distillation process impacts daily life and global economics. By exploring the slide file, students learn not only the science behind distillation but also its significance in meeting global energy demands.

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This PDF slide file does more than just describe how fractional distillation works; it brings the entire process to life, showing its pivotal role in modern society. Whether used to enhance classroom discussions, as a self-study guide, or as a part of an educational display, this resource is ready to meet diverse educational needs. Dive into “Fractional Distillation: The Heart of Petroleum Refining” and transform your approach to teaching and learning about one of the most fundamental processes in the petroleum industry.

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Fractional Distillation of Petroleum

Petroleum and its Extraction
Petroleum/crude oil is the
major source of petrol,
kerosene and diesel.
Natural gas may exist as a
layer above, dissolved in
petroleum or in oil traps.
Composition of petroleum
and natural gas vary from
place to place.
Crude oil has too many
components to separate into
pure compounds.
Separated in to fractions.
Each fraction has a mixture of
hydrocarbons.
Separation is in a fractionating
column and is based on boiling
point ranges.

Fractionating Process
.1. Crude oil is heated in a pipe
and vapours pass into
fractionating column.
.2. Column contain trays at
different levels. Each tray has
“bubble caps” where vapours
pass through.
.3. Hot vapours with steam move
up column and as they cool,
they condense on
“bubble caps”.
.4. Lowest boiling points rise to
the top before condensing and
being collected.
.5. Light compounds that do not
condense are collected at the
top.
.6. Each level, liquids with narrow
boiling point range collect in
overflow trays.
.7. Liquids that overflow fall back
into the heat and steam and
are vaporised again.
.8. After many cycles trays collect
fractions and are collected.
.9. Vacuum distillation of the
components at the bottom that
don’t vaporise to collect
lubricating oils.
.10. Greases are separated using
different solvents.

Components of Petroleum
Major Components of Crude Oil
Refinery Gas: C1-C4, used as fuel
or precursor to plastics or petrol
additives.
Gasoline: C5-C12, used as motor
fuel, petrochemical solvents or
naptha.
Kerosene: C11-C15, used as
aviation fuel and starting material
for catalytic cracking.
Diesel and gas oil: C15-C18, used
as diesel fuel and heating fuel oil.
Lubricating Oils: C16-C20, used as
lubricating oil, starting material
for catalytic cracking.
Paraffin Waxes: C20-C40, used for
candles and wax paper.
Bitumen: above C40, used for
roofing tar, road bitumen
(asphalt).

Catalytic Cracking
The petrol yield from
fractioning is often too low to
meet demand.
Catalytic cracking is used to
increase the yield of petrol by
breaking larger chains into
smaller ones suitable for use
as petrol.

Question 1
Which of the following is incorrect about fractionating
petroleum?
(A) The heavier components condense faster.
(B) The components with higher boiling points condense
trays at lower levels.
(C) The light components do not condense and are collected
at the top.
(D) Each fraction contains a pure compound. ←
Each fraction will have a mixture of chemicals that have
similar boiling points.

Question 2
Which of the following is incorrect about fractions from oil
refinery and their uses?
(A) Natural gas is used mainly as fuels and as raw materials
in petrochemical industry.
(B) Kerosene is mainly used as aviation fuel and cracked into
small hydrocarbons.
(C) Gasoline is mainly used as car fuel and the heaviest
component. ←
(D) Diesel is used as fuels for diesel car and industrial boilers.
While gasoline is used as a car fuel it is not the heaviest
component of crude oil.

Question 3
Explain how fractional distillation enables crude oil to be
separated into several fractions with distinctive uses.
Crude oil is a mixture of Hydrocarbons each with different
properties, importantly boiling point.
By heating the crude oil the lighter (lower C content)
components condense higher up the column while heavier
(higher C content) components condense at lower points in
the column.
In this way the crude oil can be separated.

Question 4
Gasoline and refinery gas are two commonly extracted
components of crude oil. State their use and name one
possible alkane that would be found each component.
Gasoline is used mainly for automotive transport as well as
petrochemical solvents.
An example of one alkane found within the gasoline group
would be octane.
Refinery gas is often used as a fuel for power generation as
well as a precursor to many other organic chemicals.
An example would be methane.

Question 5
The demand for many of the larger fractions of crude oil is
significantly lower than the demand for gasoline.
Assess the use of catalytic cracking.
Gasoline is a highly sought after product, which the
automotive industry requires.
Larger fractions like paraffins and lubricating oils are in
substantially lower demand.
Cracking allows larger fractions to be converted to more
useful fractions at the expense of some thermal energy.
Assess the use of catalytic cracking.
The use of cracking allows for better utilisation of crude oil
resources.
Cracking is an essential process that allows humans to
convert large oil fractions to smaller fractions to better meet
demand.