# Shifting and Scaling Effects on Mean and Standard Deviation

In this post, we will explain the effects of shifting (addition or subtraction) and scaling (multiplication or division) of scores in the entire data set. The first part of this post gives you the fundamental ideas of what happens if a constant value is added, subtracted, multiplied or divided, and the second part explains the […]

# Calculating Chi-Squared

$2 \times 2$ Contingency Table The following shows the results of a survey of a sample of $200$ randomly chosen adults classified according to gender and sport. These are called observed values or observed frequencies.  \begin{array}{|c|c|c|c|} \hline & \text{loves sport} & \text{hates sport} & \text{sum} \\ \hline \text{male} & 72 […]