(a) Factorise \( 4x^3 + 18x^2 + 23x + 9 \). \( \begin{align} \displaystyle 4x^3 + 18x^2 + 23x + 9 &= 4x^3 + 4x^2 + 14x^2 + 23x + 9 \\ &= 4x^2 (x+1) + 14x^2 + 14x + 9x + 9 \\ &= 4x^2 (x+1) + 14x(x+1) + 9(x+1) \\ &= (x+1)(4x^2 […]

# Mathematical Induction Regarding Factorials

Prove by mathematical induction that for al lintegers \( n \ge 1 \) , $$ \dfrac{1}{2!} + \dfrac{2}{3!} + \dfrac{3}{4!} + \cdots + \dfrac{n}{(n+1)!} = 1 – \dfrac{1}{(n+1)!}$$ Step 1: Show it is true for \( n=1 \). \( \begin{align} \displaystyle \text{LHS } &= \dfrac{1}{2!} = \dfrac{1}{2} \\ \text{RHS } &= 1 – \dfrac{1}{2!} \\ […]

# Applications of the Unit Circle

The identify $\cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta = 1$ is required for finding trigonometric ratios. Example 1 Find exactly the possible values of $\cos \theta$ for $\sin \theta = \dfrac{5}{8}$. \( \begin{align} \displaystyle \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta &= 1 \\ \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \dfrac{5}{8} &= 1 \\ \cos^2 \theta + \dfrac{25}{64} &= 1 [...]

# Trigonometric Ratios

Circles with Cnetre $(0,0)$ Consider a circle with centre $(0,0)$ and radius $r$ units. Suppose $(x,y)$ is any point on this circle. Using ths distance formula; \( \begin{align} \displaystyle \sqrt{(x-0)^2+(y-0)^2} &= r \\ \therefore x^2+y^2 &= r^2 \end{align} \) $x^2+y^2 = r^2$ is the equation of a circle with centre $(0,0)$ and radius $r$. The [...]

# Arc Length and Sector Area

You should know with these terms relating to the parts of a circle. The centre of a circle is the point which is equidistant from all points on the circle. A radius of a circle a straight line joining the centre of a circle to any point on the circumference. A minor arc is an [...]

# Degree-Radian Conversions

Degree Measurement of Angles One full revolution makes an angle of $360^{\circ}$, and the angle on a straight line is $180^{\circ}$. Therefore, one degree, $1^{\circ}$, can be defined as $\dfrac{1}{360}$ of one full revolution. For greater accuracy we define one minute, $1'$, as $\dfrac{1}{60}$ of one degree and one second, $1^{\prime \prime}$, as $\dfrac{1}{60}$ of [...]

# Volumes for Two Functions

If the region bounded by the upper function $y_{upper}=f(x)$ and the lower funciton $y_{lower}=g(x)$, and the lines $x=a$ and $x=b$ is revolved about the $x$-axis, then its volume of revolution is given by: $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle V &= \int_{a}^{b}{\Big([f(x)]^2 - [g(x)]^2\Big)}dx \\ &= \int_{a}^{b}{\Big(y_{upper}^2 - y_{lower}^2\Big)}dx \end{align} $$ Example 1 Find the volume of revolution [...]

# Volumes using Integration

Volume of Revolution We can use integration to find volumes of revolution between $x=a$ and $x=b$. When the region enclosed by $y=f(x)$, the $x$-axis, and the vertical lines $x=a$ and $x=b$ is revolved through $2 \pi$ or $360^{\circ}$about the $x$-axis to generate a solid, the volume of the solid is given by: $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle [...]

# Kinematics using Integration

Distances from Velocity Graphs Suppose a car travels at a constant positive velocity $80 \text{ km h}^{-1}$ for $2$ hours. $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle \text{distance travelled} &= \text{speed} \times \text{time} \\ &= 80 \text{ km h}^{-1} \times 2 \text{ h} \\ &= 160 \text{ km} \end{align} $$ We we sketch the graph velocity against time, the [...]

# Area Between Two Functions

Home If two functions $f(x)$ and $g(x)$ intersect at $x=1$ and $x=3$, and $f(x) \ge g(x)$ for all $1 \le x \le 3$, then the area of the shaded region between their points of intersection is given by: $$ \begin{align} \displaystyle A &= \int_{1}^{3}{f(x)}dx - \int_{1}^{3}{g(x)}dx \\ &= \int_{1}^{3}{\Big[f(x)-g(x)\Big]}dx \end{align} $$ Example 1 Find the [...]