 (a)   Factorise $4x^3 + 18x^2 + 23x + 9$. \begin{align} \displaystyle 4x^3 + 18x^2 + 23x + 9 &= 4x^3 + 4x^2 + 14x^2 + 23x + 9 \\ &= 4x^2 (x+1) + 14x^2 + 14x + 9x + 9 \\ &= 4x^2 (x+1) + 14x(x+1) + 9(x+1) \\ &= (x+1)(4x^2 […] # Mathematical Induction Regarding Factorials Prove by mathematical induction that for al lintegers \( n \ge 1 , $$\dfrac{1}{2!} + \dfrac{2}{3!} + \dfrac{3}{4!} + \cdots + \dfrac{n}{(n+1)!} = 1 – \dfrac{1}{(n+1)!}$$ Step 1: Show it is true for $n=1$. \begin{align} \displaystyle \text{LHS } &= \dfrac{1}{2!} = \dfrac{1}{2} \\ \text{RHS } &= 1 – \dfrac{1}{2!} \\ […] # Applications of the Unit Circle The identify \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta = 1 is required for finding trigonometric ratios. Example 1 Find exactly the possible values of \cos \theta for \sin \theta = \dfrac{5}{8}. \( \begin{align} \displaystyle \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \theta &= 1 \\ \cos^2 \theta + \sin^2 \dfrac{5}{8} &= 1 \\ \cos^2 \theta + \dfrac{25}{64} &= 1 […] # Trigonometric Ratios Circles with Cnetre (0,0) Consider a circle with centre (0,0) and radius r units. Suppose (x,y) is any point on this circle. Using ths distance formula; \( \begin{align} \displaystyle \sqrt{(x-0)^2+(y-0)^2} &= r \\ \therefore x^2+y^2 &= r^2 \end{align} $x^2+y^2 = r^2$ is the equation of a circle with centre $(0,0)$ and radius $r$. The […] Degree Measurement of Angles One full revolution makes an angle of $360^{\circ}$, and the angle on a straight line is $180^{\circ}$. Therefore, one degree, $1^{\circ}$, can be defined as $\dfrac{1}{360}$ of one full revolution. For greater accuracy we define one minute, $1’$, as $\dfrac{1}{60}$ of one degree and one second, $1^{\prime \prime}$, as $\dfrac{1}{60}$ of […] # Volumes for Two Functions

If the region bounded by the upper function $y_{upper}=f(x)$ and the lower funciton $y_{lower}=g(x)$, and the lines $x=a$ and $x=b$ is revolved about the $x$-axis, then its volume of revolution is given by: \begin{align} \displaystyle V &= \int_{a}^{b}{\Big([f(x)]^2 – [g(x)]^2\Big)}dx \\ &= \int_{a}^{b}{\Big(y_{upper}^2 – y_{lower}^2\Big)}dx \end{align} Example 1 Find the volume of revolution […] 