# The Easy Way to Add Algebraic Fractions 1

## Addition of Algebraic Fractions: Monic Denominators

As a mathematics tutor, I often come across students who struggle with adding algebraic fractions, especially those with monic denominators. In this article, I will provide a step-by-step guide to simplify the process and help you master this essential skill.

## What are Algebraic Fractions with Monic Denominators?

Algebraic fractions are fractions that contain algebraic expressions in the numerator, denominator, or both. Monic denominators are polynomials with a leading coefficient of 1. A typical example of an algebraic fraction with monic denominators is:

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{x^2-2x} + \frac{1}{x^2+4x}$

## Step 1: Find the Least Common Denominator (LCD)

To add algebraic fractions, you need to find the least common denominator (LCD). The LCD is the smallest polynomial that is divisible by all the denominators of the fractions being added. To find the LCD:

1. Factorise each denominator.
2. List all the unique factors from the denominators.
3. For each unique factor, find the highest power it appears in any of the denominators.
4. Multiply the factors raised to their respective highest powers to get the LCD.

In our example, the denominators are $x^2-2x$ and $x^2+4x$. Let’s factorise them:

$\displaystyle x^2-2x = x(x-2)$

$\displaystyle x^2+4x = x(x+4)$

The unique factors are $x$, $(x-2)$, and $(x+4)$, each with the highest power of 1. Therefore, the LCD is:

$\displaystyle x(x-2)(x+4)$

## Step 2: Convert Each Fraction to an Equivalent Fraction with the LCD

To add the fractions, they must have the same denominator. Convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the LCD as the denominator. To do this:

1. Divide the LCD by the denominator of the fraction.
2. Multiply both the numerator and denominator of the fraction by the result.

In our example, for the first fraction:

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{x^2-2x} = \frac{1}{x(x-2)} \times \frac{x+4}{x+4} = \frac{x+4}{x(x-2)(x+4)}$

For the second fraction:

$\displaystyle \frac{1}{x^2+4x} = \frac{1}{x(x+4)} \times \frac{x-2}{x-2} = \frac{x-2}{x(x-2)(x+4)}$

## Step 3: Add the Numerators and Simplify

Now that the fractions have the same denominator, add the numerators and keep the common denominator. The result is:

$\displaystyle \frac{x+4}{x(x-2)(x+4)} + \frac{x-2}{x(x-2)(x+4)} = \frac{(x+4)+(x-2)}{x(x-2)(x+4)} = \frac{2x+2}{x(x-2)(x+4)}$

### Simplifying the Result

To simplify the result, check if any factors in the numerator and denominator can be cancelled out. In this case, there are no common factors, so the final simplified result is:

$\displaystyle \frac{2x+2}{x(x-2)(x+4)}$

## Practice Makes Perfect

Adding algebraic fractions with monic denominators may seem daunting at first, but with practice, it becomes easier. Remember to follow these key steps:

1. Find the least common denominator (LCD) by factorising the denominators.
2. Convert each fraction to an equivalent fraction with the LCD.
3. Add the numerators and simplify the result.

• Always check your work by substituting a few values for the variable to ensure your answer is correct.
• Break down complex problems into smaller, manageable steps to avoid feeling overwhelmed.

By mastering the art of adding algebraic fractions with monic denominators, you’ll be well-equipped to tackle more advanced mathematical concepts. Remember, patience and persistence are key to success in mathematics.

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